台灣的早年回憶

早年的回憶,那些年,這些事

在物資匱乏的五、六十年代,生活艱苦,人人克勤克儉,不敢浪費,許多生活物品用壞了,捨不得丟掉,仍堪修補。例如,家裡的細瓷碗碟可以在裂縫旁打釘連接,油鍋穿底可以錫條燒焊,絲襪拉絲可以織補,皮鞋可以輪胎皮換底,球鞋磨破可以熱燙一層黑膠再穿。街上常有修理雨傘、藤椅、紗窗紗門的流動師傅一路呼叫,然而這種手藝已經失傳。

那個時候,家家戶戶大多吃個粗飽,想要過年吃得好,自己要養雞養鴨,小孩生日是煮兩個雞蛋,最多買一個海綿蛋糕,算是慶生。
由於傳統市場多在市區,偏遠的鄉里出現了流動的推車或三輪貨車,切好的豬肉是用姑婆芋葉包好,蔬菜是用草繩捆綁,一串串地賣,攤車上醬菜、家庭五金、掃帚和拖把、水桶和臉盆等、應有盡有。

以前有人家裡生兒生女,賀禮是送兩罐奶粉,有些家庭未必買得起進口奶粉,「子母牌」和「育才牌」代奶粉因而出現在嬰兒潮的年代。最初日本奶粉如「明治」、「雪印」等一度佔領國內的市場,後來纔有「勒吐精」(Lactogen)、「克寧」(KLIM)和「樺樹」(Birch Tree)等與之競爭,1953年設廠的「味全」奶粉是歷史最悠久的國產奶粉,信教的人偶爾可在教會領到美國的脫脂奶粉。

小時候住眷村最怕上廁所,公廁是定時沖水的蹲溝,那時沒有衛生紙這種東西,用來擦屁股的是米黃色、粗糙的「玉山牌」草紙。車站和市場的公廁裡臭氣衝天,通常男女隔間的入口有一個狹小的空間,總有一個婦人坐鎮在那裡賣衛生紙,以一疊4張為單位零售。捲筒式和抽取式衛生紙是後來的「重大發明」,最早的品牌是「白光」,「五月花」和「舒潔」應該是它的晚輩。

孩童們最興奮聽到幾種聲音,竹筒的搖櫓聲表示賣烤地瓜,卡啦作響的搖筒聲是以空鐵罐換麥芽花生糖的時刻(用木匠的刨子將堅硬的糖塊刨成片,加上芫荽),吧噗聲是冰淇淋車來了,轟然巨響是爆米花聲。路邊挑擔的庶民小吃有豆花、麵茶、臭豆腐、碗粿等。一碗陽春麵只加幾粒榨菜,不少味精,也吃得津津有味,餛飩麵算是高級,牛肉麵是請女朋友吃的頂級。

餅乾是秤斤兩賣的,「金雞牌」筒裝餅乾是送人的好禮,「台富餅乾」是懷念的好滋味,為了省錢常到漢口街的門市部買袋裝的碎餅乾,雖然賣相不佳,一樣可以吃到肚子裡。「可口奶滋」是後起之秀,比「旺旺仙貝」要早出世,它曾經贊助過一支乙級棒球隊,但戰績不佳不久就解散了,到現在鐵觀音口味的「可口奶滋」仍然是拜拜時給神明的供品。

公園裡可見到賣棉花糖、氣球、麵人的攤販,小朋友用舊報紙做成的風箏飛上天空。口渴時到冰店叫一碗剉冰,仙草冰和紅豆冰最普遍,蜜豆冰是從台中傳來的,吃不夠就再來一碗祇加糖水的清冰。柑仔店的抽獎玩具或零食令學童放學後徘徊不去,連發的左輪槍是男生最渴望的新年禮物,必須裝填子彈圈纔有硝煙;女生能擁有一個會闔眼入睡的洋娃娃,就感到無比幸福。

學童喜歡飼養的寵物是蠶,從吐絲到作繭自縛,破繭為蛾,過程相當有趣;也有人從池塘裡捉大肚魚,在樹上捕蟬,各顯神通。童年的玩具可以自製,筷子槍可以射橡皮筋,以竹筒槍擊發豆子,用彈弓打麻雀,線軸可製作「坦克車」。手錶是貴重物品,有些人遇到考試得向家人借錶看時間,我繼承父親的瑞士製伊波路手錶(Ernest Borel),一直戴到大學,纔換了精工舍(Seiko)新錶。

在瓦斯爐沒出現前,生火作炊用煤球爐,從香港來台灣時,家人帶來一個煤油爐,我賺零用錢的方式是到鎮上幫媽媽提整桶的煤油。家裡的電器祇有一台德國製的Grundig真空管收音機,高中畢業時添了一台「將軍牌」黑白電視機,以前這兩種電器都要申請使用執照,在老三台的時期,每在颱風過後,必須調整屋頂上的天線,纔有清楚的收視畫面。

在烘焙業缺乏創新的年代,麵包的選項不多,奶油和肉鬆麵包不宜保留到隔日。1962年,退伍軍官劉哲基在台中創造了不含蘋果的「蘋果麵包」,因達到國際標準,開始供應駐台美軍食用。1967年,「名立食品」推出第一種叫做「生力麵」的泡麵,風靡全省;1971年,「統一企業」不落人後,開始販售附有肉燥包的泡麵,與「名立」、「維力」、「味味」等合稱為速食麵的四大天王,這是食品界的一次革命。

有關洗滌劑的歷史,以前家庭洗衣是用「南僑」或「象頭」肥皂,粉末狀的「天鵝牌」非肥皂帶來了方便,也引導了後來改良的「白蘭」和「雪泡」洗衣粉。彼時洗頭髮不是使用「脫普」,就是用「耐斯」洗髮粉;1972年,美國可麗柔公司(Carirol)輸入「綠野香波」洗髮精,它特有的青草芳香,大受女性歡迎。在英國「麗仕」(Lux)香皂尚未進口前,「蜂王黑砂糖」和「四合一」香皂在國內已是一流的品牌。

有些早年創始於上海,來台設廠的老牌子商品歷久不衰,「明星花露水」(1929)仍然是理髮店熱毛巾的香料,「百雀羚」(1931)不輸給德國的藍罐「妮維雅」(Nevia),都是大眾化的護膚面霜。「黑人牙膏」(Darkie)從小用它刷到大,也是來自上海(1933),早期的商標是一個臉黑齒白的黑人,1990年因涉及種族歧視,廣告遭到抗議,英文名稱改為Darlie,商標名稱還是「黑人牙膏」,但臉孔變白多了。

牛仔褲曾經是大學生最愛的潮流服飾,那時台灣的服裝業還沒生產,我的第一條褲子是「蘋果牌」(Texwood),香港的表妹送的,質料比得上美國的名牌Lee和Leve Strauss,穿了多年,直到變胖纔捨棄。現在的年輕人卻喜歡穿破的牛仔褲,搞不懂破的反而比較貴。以前女生的穿著很保守,迷你裙和短褲為學校禁止,如今裸肩露背,招搖過市,已不足為怪。

在手機還未發明時,祇有準備零錢打公共電話,忘了號碼可以打104「查號台」,每通3元。每年中華電信會送來一本電話簿,厚得可以當作枕頭。有了手機,加了LINE,時時刻刻都可與人聯絡。電子郵件取代了FAX,很難得收到有溫度的來信,郵局發行過的明信片和郵簡,現在已經看不到了。農曆新年大家懶得再用電話拜年,傳送LINE到群組就算是禮貌周到。

電腦帶來現代的生活無比方便,厚重的字典被想到會被「谷歌」淘汰,太久不動筆,許多字已不會寫。影印機代替了複寫紙,畫素清楚的手機取代了傻瓜相機,失聯的朋友可以在臉書上打撈,滿街的低頭族,車上看書的學生曾經有我,那是以前求學時熟悉的風景。

二十年為一個世代,不知不覺過了三個多世代,從社會的實習生,過渡到退休的資深公民。好的事物僅能在記憶中翻找,那些年學校有規矩,公務員有官箴,軍人有志節,社會講求儉樸勤勞的美德,然而一切都走遠了。

1,151 thoughts on “台灣的早年回憶

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